Congenital (present at birth)
It appears during foetal development. Often caused by vertebrae that did not form normally; by a lack of vertebrae; by partially formed vertebrae; or by lack of separation of the vertebrae.
Associated with many neurological conditions. It happens especially in children who do not walk yet, and who suffer for example from cerebral palsy, spina bifida; muscular dystrophy; paralytic conditions; spinal cord tumours; or neurofibromatosis, among others.
80% of cases. Its origin is unknown.
There are 3 types of idiopathic scoliosis:
– Infantile –
It appears from birth to 3 years of age. The curvature of the vertebrae is typically to the left and is most commonly seen in children. Usually the curvature disappears as the child grows.
– Juvenile –
It occurs in children between the ages of 3 and 10.
– Adolescent –
It takes place in children between the ages of 10 and 18. It is the most common type and is more frequent in girls.